BE-2 :: Further research on the survey and risk evaluation of contaminated soil, land, groundwater, sediment

A lot of knowledge related to the survey and risk evaluation of contaminated land is already available, but should be continuously updated, fine-tuned and disseminated in order to keep the implementation (including policymaking) appropriate, cost-effective and capable to tackle possible risks for human health and environment due to contamination.
Research questions:
The following research questions are relevant for either natural capital (cfr. historical contamination), land management (cfr. prevention of contamination) and impact of land management (cfr. contamination due to ongoing land management practices).
New (cheap, efficient, quick, validated and reliable) innovative screening methods for sampling and analysis (additional to the “classic” methods) need to be developed. How to integrate the different detection methods to have a proper and “combined” view of the contamination? How to use statistics to determine the proper number and location of samples and analysis (cfr representativity, taking into account heterogeneity and variability)? Which methods for “passive” sampling (taking into account bioavailability)?
How to fingerprint (e.g. determination of age) sources of contamination in mixed plumes?
Sampling and analysis methods for detection of “new” contamination parameters, e.g. for tar, dioxins, other “new” emerging contaminants, … need to be developed.
Updated and harmonized models for human and ecotoxicological risk evaluation for contaminated land, sediment need to be developed: including updated and refined toxicological and dispersion parameters (e.g. on bioavailability, vapor intrusion due to changed building regulations (cfr. fresh air tube in Luxembourg), natural attenuation, flux groundwater-surface water), updated exposure models, new chemicals, … .
How to deal with uncertainties related to risk assessment?
Should methods and models for risk evaluation be harmonized within Europe? How?
Should threshold values be harmonized within Europe? How?
How to take into account combination toxicity (mixed contamination parameters)?
How to eliminate risks due to vapor intrusion into building with sensitive use?
How to refine the modeling of interaction (e.g. chemical erosion) and dispersion in the groundwater-sediment-surface water interface? How to define the spreading and “in situ” risks and need for remediation?
How to raise awareness for the possible risks due to soil contamination (e.g. in vegetable gardens)?
How to survey (and remediate) groundwater contamination (e.g. VOC, pesticides) in limestone aquifers?