PT-3 :: Strategies for minimization and remediation of soil/water pollution.

Soil and water are required resources for life on Earth. In most cases, an impact on the soil system has a direct impact on water resources. For example, the intensification of soil erosion process compromise also reservoir’s freshwater quality. Soil and water contamination can results from intensive farming, which relies in many cases not only on the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, but also on irrigation. Agriculture, in particular, is a major source of nitrate pollution of inland waters, and it is even observed an increase in deep groundwater. Also the livestock effluents can pollute the environment and it’s particularly relevant on the “agro-silvo-pastoral system Montado”, a sensible ecosystem.
It will affect water and soil quality as natural capital and ecosystem services. The successful of some economic activities (such as agriculture or tourism) and human well-being depends on healthy soil and water. Fertile soil and clean water are both renewable resources in natural systems and, when managed properly, can also be renewable resources in the context of agricultural production. So, it’s a high priority research topic, involving many stakeholders and end users, who could benefit from this research.
Specific research questions (following the conceptual model of INSPIRATION):
• Assessing the main pollution sources (activities), the pollution hotspots and new (emerging) pollutants;
Why: To understand the dimension and trends of the issue.
Natural Capital:
• Identify pollution impacts on natural resources, understanding how it affects the provision of ecosystem services (analysis of ecological, social and economic aspects).
• Understand the pollutants kinetics of transfer in soil and water and spatial and temporal dynamics.
Why: Fundamental for conscientious decisions and to delineate future strategies for minimizing pollution and technologies for remediation.
Land Management:
• Study and define alternative technologies and practices for soil and water remediation and to minimize pollution, accounting the various sources of elements, and assessing the costs associated.
Why: to achieve the desired outcomes.
• Identify and evaluate types of environmental policy instrument.
Why: To ensure the application of such technologies and practices to minimize pollution and respect limits.