PL-2 :: Threats to soil

In Poland a number of threats to soil have been identified. The consequences of these threats are directly to soil productive values but also they generate impact on other natural resources and on human health. Among them the most important are: soil erosion, soil acidification, impact of pigs inbreeding (excessive amount of nitrogen in soil), dusting from industrial wastes dumping sites.
Erosion is a significant factor, which has to be taken into consideration in soil threat assessment. In Poland 40% of soil is exposed to erosion. Erosion is a physical process which has significant chemical consequences connected with secondary dusting, threatening the environment including water and sediments.
Therefore there is a need for answer to the question what part of pollution is transferred to water and sediments, estimation is needed to what extend erosion is contributing to this pollution. It is also important to investigate the impact of climate change on erosion. In this case both heavy rains and long-term droughts have to be taken into account.
Specific research questions:
Demand:
How to protect arable land in urban areas? How to value a demand for various functions?
Development of new standards of soil examinations.
Natural capital
There is a problem of bio-availability of pollution in soil. It is important to know, how high the level of bio-availability is. It happens that there is low level of pollution but the bio-availability is high and another way round.
How to involve bioavailability factor in soil quality assessment criteria?
There is a need for monitoring of soil and changes in the soil. It should be a multi-year program of soil changes observation including new methods of soil protection against climate change, protection of biodiversity (plants, birds, mammals).
To this end a common policy of ministries of agriculture and environment is necessary in order to counteract factors threatening soil.
New instruments for assessment of changes in soil – identification of synergies, risk mechanisms, acidification, loss of organic matter cumulated mechanisms. There is a need for assessment of these mechanisms.
Land management
How can land management counteract soil erosion?
Impact
Estimation of pollution caused by emission from soil erosion and its impact on water and sediments.
How to measure climate change impact on soil erosion?